Category Archives: Red Meat

Protein > 95 Grams Associated With Forearm Fracture in Women


Protein consumption and bone fractures in women.

Dietary protein increases urinary calcium losses and has been associated with higher rates of hip fracture in cross-cultural studies. However, the relation between protein and risk of osteoporotic bone fractures among individuals has not been examined in detail. In this prospective study, usual dietary intake was measured in 1980 in a cohort of 85,900 women, aged 35-59 years, who were participants in the Nurses’ Health Study. A mailed food frequency questionnaire was used and incident hip (n = 234) and distal forearm (n = 1,628) fractures were identified by self-report during the following 12 years. Information on other factors related to osteoporosis, including obesity, use of postmenopausal estrogen, smoking, and physical activity, was collected on biennial questionnaires. Dietary measures were updated in 1984 and 1986. Protein was associated with an increased risk of forearm fracture (relative risk (RR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.43, p for trend = 0.01) for women who consumed more than 95 g per day compared with those who consumed less than 68 g per day. A similar increase in risk was observed for animal protein, but no association was found for consumption of vegetable protein. Women who consumed five or more servings of red meat per week also had a significantly increased risk of forearm fracture (RR = 1.23, 95% Cl 1.01-1.50) compared with women who ate red meat less than once per week. Recall of teenage diet did not reveal any increased risk of forearm fracture for women with higher consumption of animal protein or red meat during this earlier period of life. No association was observed between adult protein intake and the incidence of hip fractures, though power to assess this association was low.

Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA
Am. J. Epidemiol. Mar 1996
PMID: 8610662 | Free Full Text

Fish, Olive Oil, and Low Red Meat Preserve Bone in Greek Women


Association between dietary patterns and indices of bone mass in a sample of Mediterranean women.

A holistic dietary approach, examining the effect of dietary patterns in terms of chronic disease prevention and treatment, continuously gains more attention and may elucidate the association between diet and bone health. In the present study we examined whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet or other dietary patterns has any significant impact on indices of bone mass.
Two hundred twenty adult Greek women were recruited. Lumbar spine bone mineral density and total body bone mineral content were determined by using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Food intake was assessed using 3-d food records and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through a Mediterranean diet score. Principal components analysis was used for the identification of participants’ dietary patterns.
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was not found to have any significant effect on indices of bone mass. Principal components analysis identified 10 dietary patterns explaining 80% of the variance in food intake. A pattern characterized by high consumption of fish and olive oil and low intake of red meat was positively associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (P = 0.017) and total body bone mineral content (P = 0.048), after controlling for several confounders.
Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not associated with indices of bone mass in a sample of adult women, whereas adherence to a dietary pattern close to the Mediterranean diet, i.e., high consumption of fish and olive oil and low red meat intake, was positively related to bone mass, suggesting potential bone-preserving properties of this pattern throughout adult life.

Kontogianni MD, Melistas L, Yannakoulia M, Malagaris I…
Nutrition Feb 2009
PMID: 18849146