Monthly Archives: November 2014

Resveratrol Stimulates Bone Formation or Mineralization in Obese Men


Resveratrol Increases Bone Mineral Density and Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Obese Men: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Context: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with low-grade inflammation, which may harmfully affect bone. Resveratrol (RSV) possesses anti-inflammatory properties, and rodent studies suggest bone protective effects. Objective: This study sought to evaluate effects of RSV treatment on bone in men with MetS. Setting and Design: The study was conducted at Aarhus University Hospital as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial assessing changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and geometry. Participants: The study population comprised 74 middle-aged obese men with MetS recruited from the general community, of which 66 completed all visits. Mean age of participants was 49.3 ± 6.3 years and mean body mass index was 33.7 ± 3.6 kg/m(2). Intervention: Oral treatment with 1.000 mg RSV (RSVhigh), 150mg RSV (RSVlow), or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Main Outcome Measure: Prespecified primary endpoint was change in bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Results: BAP increased dose dependently with RSV (R = 0.471, P < .001), resulting in a significantly greater increase in BAP in the RSVhigh group compared with placebo at all time-points (week 4, 16.4 ± 4.2%, P < .001; week 8, 16.5 ± 4.1%, P < .001; week 16, 15.2 ± 3.7%, P < .001). Lumbar spine trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (LS vBMDtrab) also increased dose dependently with RSV (R = 0.268, P = .036), with a significant increase of 2.6 ± 1.3% in the RSVhigh group compared with placebo (P = .043). In addition, changes in BAP and LS vBMDtrab were positively correlated (R = 0.281, P = .027). No consistent changes were detected in bone density at the hip. Conclusions: Our data suggest that high-dose RSV supplementation positively affects bone, primarily by stimulating formation or mineralization. Future studies of longer duration comprising populations at risk of osteoporosis are needed to confirm these results.

Ornstrup MJ, Harsløf T, Kjær TN, Langdahl BL…
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Oct 2014
PMID: 25322274

Review: Resveratrol, Inositol, Vitamin D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Risk


Resveratrol, inositol, vitamin D and K in the prevention of cardiovascular and osteoporotic risk: a novel approach in peri- and postmenopause.

The prevention of cardiovascular and osteoporotic risk is a topic of great importance in the peri- and postmenopausal periods. This paper reviews the role of resveratrol, inositol, vitamin D and K in the prevention of cardiovascular and osteoporotic risk in peri- and post-. The phytoestrogen-like activity of resveratrol has potential clinical implications in the gynecological practice. In particular transresveratrol inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Resveratrol has also a documented antiplatelet effect and may prevent cardiovascular diseases inhibiting the cardiac fibroblasts proliferation. With regard to bone health, in in vitro studies resveratrol has shown activities in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Resveratrol also interacts with vitamin D in promoting bone health. Resveratrol is considered a caloric restriction mimetic and potentially effects factors involved in the metabolic syndrome. Myo-inositol has documented in clinical studies its effectiveness in improving the metabolic syndrome in post menopausal women. Thus the supplementation with inositol and resveratrol may be useful in the prevention of insulin resistance and consequently metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases risk. Finally vitamin K2 effects calcium metabolisms and subjects with higher levels of calcium in the bones tend to have a lower frequency of vascular calcifications and a lower cardiovascular risk. Vitamin K2 also has a key role in the bone homeostasis. A supplement including resveratrol, inositol, vitamin K and vitamin D offers a novel opportunity to the woman in peri- and postmenopause.

Parazzini F
Minerva Ginecol Oct 2014
PMID: 25245999

Resveratrol May Increase Bone Length in Pre-pubertal Rabbits


Resveratrol treatment delays growth plate fusion and improves bone growth in female rabbits.

Trans-resveratrol (RES), naturally produced by many plants, has a structure similar to synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol, but any effect on bone growth has not yet been clarified. Pre-pubertal ovary-intact New Zealand white rabbits received daily oral administration of either vehicle (control) or RES (200 mg/kg) until growth plate fusion occurred. Bone growth and growth plate size were longitudinally monitored by X-ray imaging, while at the endpoint, bone length was assessed by a digital caliper. In addition, pubertal ovariectomized (OVX) rabbits were treated with vehicle, RES or estradiol cypionate (positive control) for 7 or 10 weeks and fetal rat metatarsal bones were cultured in vitro with RES (0.03 µM-50 µM) and followed for up to 19 days. In ovary-intact rabbits, sixteen-week treatment with RES increased tibiae and vertebrae bone growth and subsequently improved final length. In OVX rabbits, RES delayed fusion of the distal tibia, distal femur and proximal tibia epiphyses and femur length and vertebral bone growth increased when compared with controls. Histomorphometrical analysis showed that RES-treated OVX rabbits had a wider distal femur growth plate, enlarged resting zone, increased number/size of hypertrophic chondrocytes, increased height of the hypertrophic zone, and suppressed chondrocyte expression of VEGF and laminin. In cultured fetal rat metatarsal bones, RES stimulated growth at 0.3 µM while at higher concentrations (10 μM and 50 μM) growth was inhibited. We conclude that RES has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth. The effect was associated with a delay of growth plate fusion resulting in increased final length. These effects were accompanied by a profound suppression of VEGF and laminin expression suggesting that impairment of growth plate vascularization might be an underlying mechanism.

Karimian E, Tamm C, Chagin AS, Samuelsson K…
PLoS ONE 2013
PMID: 23840780 | Free Full Text

Resveratrol May Have Detrimental Bone Effects in Rats


Resveratrol supplementation influences bone properties in the tibia of hindlimb-suspended mature Fisher 344 × Brown Norway male rats.

The deleterious bone effects of mechanical unloading have been suggested to be due to oxidative stress and (or) inflammation. Resveratrol has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, the study’s objective was to determine whether providing resveratrol in the low supplementation range for a short duration prevents bone loss during mechanical unloading. Mature (6 months old) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway male rats were hindlimb-suspended (HLS) or kept ambulatory for 14 days. Rats were provided either trans-resveratrol (RES; 12.5 mg/kg body mass per day) or deionized distilled water by oral gavage for 21 days (7 days prior to and during the 14 days of HLS). Bone mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone microstructure was determined by microcomputed tomography. HLS of rats resulted in femur trabecular bone deterioration. Resveratrol supplementation did not attenuate trabecular bone deterioration in HLS rats. Unexpectedly, HLS-RES rats had the lowest tibial bone mineral content (P < 0.05), calcium content and lower cortical thickness (P < 0.05), and increased porosity compared with HLS/control rats. Plasma osteocalcin was also lower (P < 0.04) in HLS/resveratrol rats. There were no significant effects on plasma C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, or total antioxidant capacity. However, HLS-RES rats showed a negative relationship (r(2) = 0.69, P = 0.02) between plasma osteocalcin and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Based on the results, resveratrol supplementation of 6-month-old HLS male rats had no bone protective effects and possibly even detrimental bone effects.

Durbin SM, Jackson JR, Ryan MJ, Gigliotti JC…
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab Dec 2012
PMID: 23050779

Review: Resveratrol Pre-Clinical Evidence


Resveratrol Supplementation Affects Bone Acquisition and Osteoporosis: Pre-Clinical Evidence Towards Translational Diet Therapy.

Osteoporosis is a major public health issue that is expected to rise as the global population ages. Resveratrol (RES) is a plant polyphenol with various anti-aging properties. RES treatment of bone cells results in protective effects, but dose translation from in vitro studies to clinically relevant doses is limited since bioavailability is not taken into account. The aims of this review is to evaluate in vivo evidence for a role of RES supplementation in promoting bone health to reduced osteoporosis risk and potential mechanisms of action. Due to multiple actions on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, RES has potential to attenuate bone loss resulting from different etiologies and pathologies. Several animal models have investigated the bone protective effects of RES supplementation. Ovariectomized rodent models of rapid bone loss due to estrogen-deficiency reported that RES supplementation improved bone mass and trabecular bone without stimulating other estrogen-sensitive tissues. RES supplementation prior to age-related bone loss was beneficial. The hindlimb unloaded rat model used to investigate bone loss due to mechanical unloading showed RES supplementation attenuated bone loss in old rats, but had inconsistent bone effects in mature rats. In growing rodents, RES increased longitudinal bone growth, but had no other effects on bone. In the absence of human clinical trials, evidence for a role of RES on bone heath relies on evidence generated by animal studies. A better understanding of efficacy, safety, and molecular mechanisms of RES on bone will contribute to the determination of dietary recommendations and therapies to reduce osteoporosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Resveratol: Challenges in translating pre-clincial findigns to iproved patient outcomes.

Tou JC
Biochim. Biophys. Acta Oct 2014
PMID: 25315301

Review: Orthosilicic Acid


Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy.

Silicon (Si) is the most abundant element present in the Earth’s crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4), as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K), the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel), silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide), and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4) in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation)-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.

Jurkić LM, Cepanec I, Pavelić SK, Pavelić K
Nutr Metab (Lond) 2013
PMID: 23298332 | Free Full Text

The full text article (link above) has a subsection on osteoporosis:

…Interestingly, the administration of silicon in a controlled clinical study induced a significant increase in femoral bone mineral density in osteoporotic women [31]. Direct relationship between silicon content and bone formation has been shown by Moukarzel et al. [64]. They found a correlation between decreased silicon concentrations in total parenterally fed infants with a decreased bone mineral content. This was the first observation of a possible dietary deficiency of silicon in humans. A randomized controlled animal study on aged ovariectomized rats revealed that long-term preventive treatment with ch-OSA prevented partial femoral bone loss and had a positive effect on the bone turnover [65]. Dietary silicon is associated with postmenopausal bone turnover and bone mineral density at the women’s age when the risk of osteoporosis increases. Moreover, in a cohort study on 3198 middle-aged woman (50–62 years) it was shown that silicon interacts with the oestrogen status on bone mineral density, suggesting that oestrogen status is important for the silicon metabolism in bone health [66].

Silicon Associated with Bone Density in Men and Women


Dietary silicon intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and premenopausal women of the Framingham Offspring cohort.

The role of dietary silicon in bone health in humans is not known. In a cross-sectional, population-based study (2847 participants), associations between dietary silicon intake and BMD were investigated. Dietary silicon correlated positively and significantly with BMD at all hip sites in men and premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women, suggesting that increased silicon intake is associated with increased cortical BMD in these populations.
Osteoporosis is a burgeoning health and economic issue. Agents that promote bone formation are widely sought. Animal and cellular data suggest that the orthosilicate anion (i.e., dietary silicon) is involved in bone formation. The intake of silicon (Si, approximately 30 mg/day) is among the highest for trace elements in humans, but its contribution to bone health is not known.
In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we examined the association between silicon intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in 1251 men and 1596 pre- and postmenopausal women in the Framingham Offspring cohort (age, 30-87 years) at four hip sites and lumbar spine, adjusting for all potential confounding factors known to influence BMD and nutrient intake.
Silicon intake correlated positively with adjusted BMD at four hip sites in men and premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women. No significant association was observed at the lumbar spine in any group. Categorical analysis by Si intake, or energy-adjusted Si intake, supported these findings, and showed large differences in BMD (up to 10%) between the highest (> 40 mg Si/day) and lowest (< 14 mg Si/day) quintiles of silicon intake. A significant association at the lumbar spine in men was also observed. Further analyses indicated that some of the effects seen for moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages on BMD might be attributed to Si intake.
These findings suggest that higher dietary silicon intake in men and younger women may have salutary effects on skeletal health, especially cortical bone health, that has not been previously recognized. Confirmation of these results is being sought in a longitudinal study and by assessment of the influence of silicon intake on bone markers in this cohort.

Jugdaohsingh R, Tucker KL, Qiao N, Cupples LA…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Feb 2004
PMID: 14969400

Silicon Deprivation Decreases Bone Collagen Formation in Rats


Silicon deprivation decreases collagen formation in wounds and bone, and ornithine transaminase enzyme activity in liver.

We have shown that silicon (Si) deprivation decreases the collagen concentration in bone of 9-wk-old rats. Finding that Si deprivation also affects collagen at different stages in bone development, collagen-forming enzymes, or collagen deposition in other tissues would have implications that Si is important for both wound healing and bone formation. Therefore, 42 rats in experiment 1 and 24 rats in experiment 2 were fed a basal diet containing 2 or 2.6 microg Si/g, respectively, based on ground corn and casein, and supplemented with either 0 or 10 microg Si/g as sodium metasilicate. At 3 wk, the femur was removed from 18 of the 42 rats in experiment 1 for hydroxyproline analysis. A polyvinyl sponge was implanted beneath the skin of the upper back of each of the 24 remaining rats. Sixteen hours before termination and 2 wk after the sponge had been implanted, each rat was given an oral dose of 14C-proline (1.8 microCi/100 g body wt). The total amount of hydroxyproline was significantly lower in the tibia and sponges taken from Si-deficient animals than Si-supplemented rats. The disintegrations per minute of 14C-proline were significantly higher in sponge extracts from Si- deficient rats than Si-supplemented rats. Additional evidence of aberrations in proline metabolism with Si deprivation was that liver ornithine aminotransferase was significantly decreased in Si-deprived animals in experiment 2. Findings of an increased accumulation of 14C-proline and decreased total hydroxyproline in implanted sponges and decreased activity of a key enzyme in proline synthesis (liver ornithine aminotransferase) in Si-deprived animals indicates an aberration in the formation of collagen from proline in sites other than bone that is corrected by Si. This suggests that Si is a nutrient of concern in wound healing as well as bone formation.

Seaborn CD, Nielsen FH
Biol Trace Elem Res Dec 2002
PMID: 12462748

Silicon Increases Osteoblasts and Decreases Osteoclasts in Ovariectomized Rats


Short-term effects of organic silicon on trabecular bone in mature ovariectomized rats.

Silicon is known to ensure an essential role in the formation of cross-links between collagen and proteoglycans during bone growth. In this study, we have evaluated the short-term effects of a preventive treatment with silanol, a soluble organic silicon (Si), on trabecular bone in mature ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old rats were sham-operated (sham) or were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with 10 micrograms/kg/day of 17 beta estradiol (E2), or with 0.1 mg Si/kg/day or 1.0 mg Si/kg/day of silanol for 1 month. Plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels were increased by 50% in OVX rats compared with sham rats and were corrected by E2 but not by silanol treatment. The trabecular bone volume measured at the tibial metaphysis was decreased by 48%, and histomorphometric indices of bone resorption and formation were increased in OVX rats compared with sham, and these parameters were corrected by E2 treatment. Treatment of OVX rats with silanol decreased the osteoclast surface by 31% and the number of osteoclasts by 20%. The mineral apposition rate, the bone formation rate, and the osteoblast surface at the tibia metaphyseal area were increased by 30% at the higher dose of silanol compared with OVX rats. In contrast, silanol treatment had no effect on the periosteal apposition rate. The reduction of the metaphyseal bone resorption and the increased bone formation induced by silanol resulted in a slight improvement of the trabecular bone volume (+14%) compared with controls.

Hott M, de Pollak C, Modrowski D, Marie PJ
Calcif. Tissue Int. Sep 1993
PMID: 8242469

Silicon is Required for Bone Formation in Chicks


Silicon: a requirement in bone formation independent of vitamin D1.

Silicon has been reported to be involved in an early stage of bone formation as a result of earlier in vitro and in vivo studies in this laboratory. It is now possible to demonstrate that silicon exerts an effect on bone formation independent of the action of vitamin D. Day-old cockerels were fed Si-deficient and Si-supplemented diets with adequate and no dietary vitamin D under trace element controlled conditions. At the end of 4 weeks chicks receiving dietary vitamin D3 (600 IU) exhibited optimal rates of growth whereas the growth rates of chicks receiving D2 (6000 IU) and no vitamin D were markedly depressed. There were no significant differences between growth of Si-deficient and Si-supplemented chicks on the same level of vitamin D. Skull and bone size was proportional to overall chick growth. However, all chicks on Si-deficient diets irrespective of the level of dietary vitamin D had gross abnormalities of skull architecture, the overall skull appearance being narrower and shorter. The frontal area was narrower and the dorsal median line at the front parietal junction was depressed with a narrowing both posterior and laterally, stunting parietal and occipital areas. These abnormal areas showed fewer trabeculae and less calcification. Analyses of skull frontal bones for hexosamine, collagen, noncollagenous protein, and bone mineral demonstrated that the major difference was in collagen content, the Si-deficient skulls showing considerably less collagen at each level of vitamin D. These findings demonstrate that silicon has a significant effect on the bone matrix independent of vitamin D, and support the earlier postulate that silicon is involved in an early stage of bone formation.

Carlisle EM
Calcif. Tissue Int. 1981
PMID: 6257332